Find Scientific Articles on Exosomes and Medicine

Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular disease can be the result of ischemia, infection, pharmaceuticals, lifestyle factors and smoking. Inflammation, oxidative damage, autophagy and apoptosis are cellular processes at the core of cardiovascular disease inception and progression. The beneficial effects of MSC exosomes on these processes suggest potential exosome-based therapeutic modalities for cardiovascular conditions, such as ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and vascular disease. Also characterization of endogenous exosomes present in readily accessible body fluids could someday provide optimal diagnostic modalities for earlier detection of disease with higher accuracy. Better understanding of exosomes, both exogenous and endogenous may lead to more effective diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for detection and management of cardiovascular disease.

Dermatology

Dermatologic conditions, skin injuries and aging that may benefit from exosome-based therapeutic modalities. Some of these conditions include dermatitis, UV damage, wounds, burns, hair loss and scarring, which have some common cellular mechanisms involving inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and tissue degeneration. Studies investigating the cellular and biochemical effects of exosomes using in vitro and in vivo models of skin disorders, degeneration and injury seem to support the potential benefits of using MSC exosomes for the treatment of these dermatologic conditions.

Musculoskeletal

Musculoskeletal conditions, both degenerative and traumatic, may benefit from exosome-based therapeutic modalities. Some of these conditions include osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, osteonecrosis and fractures, which involve cellular biochemical mechanisms involving inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and tissue degeneration, for which MSC exosomes may be able to provide improvement. Studies investigating the cellular and biochemical effects of exosomes using in vitro and in vivo models of musculoskeletal disorders, degeneration and injury seem to support the potential benefits of using MSC exosomes for the treatment of these musculoskeletal conditions.

Neurology

The current scope of neurologic disease that may benefit from exosome-based therapeutic modalities includes dementia, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, autism, traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and peripheral neuropathy. These neurologic conditions have some common pathophysiologic mechanisms that involve neuro-inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and ischemic tissue degeneration. Studies investigating the cellular and biochemical effects of exosomes using in vitro and in vivo models of neurologic disorders seem to support the potential benefits of using MSC exosomes for the treatment of neurologic conditions.

Oncology

Oncogenesis, the development of cancerous properties by normal cells, occurs when multiple cellular, genetic and biochemical processes go awry. Exosomes produced by cancer cells contribute to this process and the development of tumors. Conversely, exosomes produced by perinatal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seem to have suppressive effects on the development of cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Exosomes produced by adult or more differentiated MSCs seem to have mixed effects on the development of cancer and metastasis. Building on to these inherent tumor suppression properties, scientific researchers have also developed modifications of perinatal MSC exosomes to augment their anti-tumor properties by enhancing cancer cell targeting and by loading exosomes with chemotherapeutic agents or anti-neoplastic proteins and miRNA.

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